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毕业论文:用这50个英文学术用语,让你的论文更专业

来源:互联网 作者:118期刊网 本文地址:http://www.118qikan.com/bylw/53.html 发布时间:2018-04-25 13:34:47


论文写作可能是英语精进的最难关之一。要掌握这项高级写作技能,需要有完美的英语的语法,精准的词汇和对主题深刻的理解。

另外,论文写作还是一种专门的文体(正式和专业性),这一点对于英语非母语的作者来说可能比较难拿捏(甚至对英语母语的作者也一样很难)。

想要提升学术英语写作,其中一个方法就是学习一些有用的固定搭配,这样一来文章就会显得更自信、更专业,论文的专业度和正式性恰到好处。

下文我们会列举50个最有用的论文写作固定搭配,附有定义和例子,全都取材于真实的学术论文。

学习要点:将下列固定搭配用到你写的文章中去。想一想语法上对不对?内容上说不说得通?把自己写的句子和下面的例子比较下,看看用得合不合适。

点击图片可放大

Essential component

- a vital part of something

重要组成部分:某事物的重要部分

- E.g. “We show here that these proteins are an essential component of the cell surface receptor”.

例子:我们这里显示,这些蛋白质是细胞表面受体的重要组成部分。

Establish a relationship

- to prove or show a link between two things

建立联系:证明二者之间有关系。

- E.g. “Our aim was to establish the relationship between aortic stiffness and stroke death in hypertensive patients”.

例子:我们的目标是证明主动脉硬化和中风死亡在高血压患者中存在联系。

Existing research

- previous academic work on the same subject

现有研究:对同一问题先前做的研究。

- E.g. “This working paper reviews the existing research evidence about the additional costs or deprivation that disabled people face”.

例子:这篇研究审议了关于残疾人面临的额外开支和贫困状况的现有研究。

First impression

- initial thought on a subject, priorto any detailed analysis

最初观点:在任何细节分析之前,对一个主题的最先的看法。

- E.g. “Our first impression was strengthened by the fact that we were aware a condition existed in Povoa de Varzim”.

例子:我们发现曾经出现在波瓦珍的病情,这印证了我们的最初观点。

Frequently cited

- often quoted or referred to inreference to something

频频引用:多次被引用

- E.g. “It should be recognized that other systems are frequently cited, particularly in engineering literature”.

例子:我们应该认识到,其他的系统经常被引用,尤其在工程学得文献中。

Fundamental principle

- principle from which other principles can be derived

基本原理:最最基础的原理,其他原理从其中得来。

- E.g. “The authors argue forthe restoration of beneficence to its place as the fundamental principle of medical ethics”.

例子:作者论证指出,医学伦理的基本原理在于对善心的重建归位。

General consensus

- the majority opinion on a topic

普遍认同:对此话题的普遍意见

- E.g. “There is a general consensus that forward exchange rates have little, if any power as forecasts offuture spot exchange rates”.

例如:大家普遍认同,远期汇率对预测未来现汇汇率几乎没有影响。

Gain insight

- achieve a more profound understanding

获得真知灼见:得到更深刻的理解

- E.g. “Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks”.

例如:通过此次对比,我们希望对他们进行这次实验有更深刻的认识。

Hierarchical structure

- a system where elements are subordinate to other elements

阶层结构:在系统中一个要素与另一个要素呈现下属关系。

- E.g. “After reviewing theirtheoretical approach, the authors present four kinds of hierarchical structurein music”.

例如:在探讨理论手段后,作者提出了在音乐中有4种阶层结构。

Highly controversial

- tending to provoke fierce disagreement

高度争议:可能会产生强烈的不认同

- E.g. “A highly controversial issue in financial economies is whether stocks overreact”.

例如:在金融经济中有一个具有高度争议的话题,就是股票是否反应过激。

Immediately apparent

- obvious and clear at that moment

立即显现:当即变得明显、清晰

- E.g. “The reasons for thisare not immediately apparent and deserve further investigation”.

例如:对此的理由没有立刻显现出来,需要进一步调查

Increase the likelihood

- to make more likely orplausible

几率增加:变得更可能

- E.g. “Numerous high school students engage in behaviours that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes”.

例子:无数的高中学生都会做这些事情,从这四件事中他们死亡的几率会增加。

Key element

- a main or fundamental component

重要元素:重要的基础的组成部分

- E.g. “Provisional restorations represent a key element in the realization of extensive esthetic rehabilitations”.

例子:暂时修复代表了大规模审美的修复的重要元素。

Largely confined

- focussed in a particular area

主要限于:专注于某一领域

- E.g. “The metabolic syndromeis largely confined to overweight and obese adults”.

例如:代谢综合征主要限于肥胖和超重的成人之中。

Literal interpretation

- a non-metaphorical or figurative reading

字面解释:没有隐喻或比喻含义的解释

- E.g. “In Experiment 2,targets were phrases that could be given either an idiomatic or a literal interpretation”.

例如:在实验2中,实验对象是词组,这些词组可以看作为习语,也可以只做字面含义解释。

Major challenge

- a large or fundamental problem

主要困难:很大和根本的问题

- E.g. “Keeping up with the population increase is a major challenge for urban areas”.

例如:城市地区的主要问题在于很难跟上人口的增长。

Markedly different

- noticeably distinct

显著不同:明显的不同

- E.g. “The spectrum ofpyridine coordinately bonded to the surface is markedly different from that ofthe pyridinium ion”.

例如:吡啶的光谱与表面的协调度和吡啶离子有显著不同。

Negative connotation

- suggesting something bad orwrong

负面暗示:暗指不好的意思

- E.g. “The label placebo was avoided because of its negative connotation”.

例子:“安慰剂”这个标牌并未被使用因为它有不好的含义。

Newly emerging

- novel or original concept first being introduced

新产生的:新的或者原创的概念

- E.g. “This is a book about anewly emerging area of research in instructional technology”.

例子:这本书是关于在教育科技研究这个新兴领域的。

Offer insight

- present a deep or original analysis

提出深刻的原创的分析

- E.g. “This study reveals whatthose practices are and may offer insight for how they fit into futureworkplaces”.

例子:这份研究指出这个方法到底是什么并且对在未来这些方法应用到工作领域作深刻的分析。

Organisational structure

- the way groups are arranged

组织结构:组织是如何安排的

- E.g. “This paper models theinner workings of relationship lending, the implications for bank organisational structure, and the effects of shocks to the economic environmenton the availability of relationship credit to small businesses”.

例子:这篇论文以如下几方面为模板:关系型贷款的内部运作,银行组织结构的含义,经济环境的影响冲击对于小型企业贷款关系的可得性的影响。

Particular emphasis

- stressing one aspect of something

特别强调:强调事物的某一方面

- E.g. “The first chapter, areview of some of the principal social surveys carried out in the last half-century or so, with particular emphasis on British experience, has been entirely rewritten”.

例子:第一章审议了在上半个世纪流行的主要社会调查,特别强调了英国的经验,但这一章已经重新改写过了。

Perceived importance

- the opinion that something is particularly important or relevant

感到某一观点特别重要和相关

- E.g. “We examined whetheremployees' perceived importance of the training program would be one variablethat mediates the relationship between training assignment and training motivation”.

例如:我们研究过员工是否感觉培训项目的重要性,这是协调培训作用和培训动机的变量。

Pioneering work

- work which explores previously uncharted territory

创举:史无前例,探索从未有人的领域

- E.g. “Hans-Paul Schwefel has responded to rapidly growing interest in Evolutionary Computation, a field that originated, in part, with his pioneering work in the early 1970s”.

例如:Has-Paul Schwefel回应了对进化计算这一热点领域,该领域有一部分是在二十世纪70年代发源的。

Positive feature

- something good

积极特征:好的方面

- E.g. “The great chemicaldiversity is a positive feature in that it indicates the likelihood that avariety of approaches can be made to prevention”.

例如:伟大化学方面的多样性是一大积极特征,显示了各种防治手段可以人为的可能性。

Qualitatively different

- differences relating toquality as opposed to quantity

质的不同:质量上的不同而非数量上的不同

- E.g. “Current methods for generating qualitatively different plans are either based on simpler andomisation of planning decisions”.

例如:目前我们产生质的不同的计划是基于简单的计划决定的随机性

Quantitative study

- a study which focuses on aspectsof quantity

定量研究:一项专注于数量的研究

- E.g. “Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on pulmonary blood vessels in lung tissue obtained by biopsy, pneumonectomy, or autopsy”.

- 例如:通过活体组织切片、肺切除手术和尸检,定量和定性研究都对于肺部组织的肺血管进行。

Raise a question

- necessitates an obvious enquiry

提出质疑:提出一个明显而必要的疑问

- E.g. “At the same time, italso raises the question of whether a single reform can meet the very different objectives of different supporters”.

例如:同时,这也对我们提出了质疑,是否单个的改革可以针对不同的支持者的对象。

Rapid expansion

- to grow larger at a fast rate

快速扩张:大规模快速增长

- E.g. “It has been suggested that the rapid expansion could be the result of human activities causing habitat disturbances or stresses such as pollution”.

例如:有人提出,快速的扩张可能是由人类活动导致的,从而引起了居住的不适、压力譬如污染。

Reach a consensus

- develop a general agreement

达成共识

- E.g. “A consensus conferencewas organized to evaluate the data and reach a consensus on optimal treatment protocols”.

例如:组织召开了一次共识会议,会上评估了数据,对最佳治疗方案达成共识。

Reciprocal relationship

- benefiting both partiesequally

互惠关系:双方受益

- E.g. “The aim of the presentstudy is to examine the reciprocal relationship between parental attachment andadolescent internalising and externalising problem behaviour”.

例如:当前研究的目的是为了探究亲子依恋和成人内化和外化问题行为的互惠关系。

Seem plausible

- appear possible or likely

似乎有道理:貌似可行

- E.g. “Again, even though theresults seem plausible, they are hard to interpret in the absence of a theory”.

例如:即便结果似乎有道理,没有理论就很难解释。

Specific examples

- focussed examples

特例

- E.g. “The specific examplesused are shown to have a substantial biasing effect on diagnostic accuracy”.

例如:我们使用的特例显示我们对诊断的精确性有显著的偏差。

Theoretical approach

- focussing on theories ratherthan practical application

理论研究方法:专注于理论而非实践

- E.g. “A new theoreticalapproach to language has emerged in the past 10–15years that allows linguistic observations about form–meaningpairings, known as 'constructions', to be stated directly”.

例如:在过去10-15年间产生了新的研究语言的方法,这种方法允许对语言的形式(含义配对)进行观察研究,称作“结构主义”,如果直接表述的话。

Typical example

- an example which is common orexpected in its outcome

典型例子:一个普遍而且大致能预料到的例子。

- E.g. “A typical example wouldbe the design of a trial to evaluate the benefits of specialist stroke units”.

一个典型例子就是我们进行一次试验,评估专家的卒中单元。

Underlying assumption

- a belief which dictates otherbeliefs

根本的假设:其他意见基于该假设

- E.g. “Much of ecological theory is based on the underlying assumption of equilibrium population dynamics”.

例子:大部分的生态学理论是基于根本的人口动态平衡的假设

Universally accepted

- an assumption which is not commonly disputed

公认:某假设是普遍不存在争议的

- E.g. “The idea of abiological root to human nature was almost universally accepted at the turn of the century”.

例子:人的本质是有生物的根性的,这个观点在世纪之交时已经普遍公认

Vary considerably

- to be widely different in form or features

变化较大:在形式和特点上很不同

- E.g. “The results of these procedures vary considerably among patients”.

例子:各个病人在这个手术上的结果大相径庭

Vast majority

- an overwhelming amount

大多数:绝大多数

- E.g. “The vast majority of cases occur in developing countries, mainly because of lack of screening”.

例子:绝大多数的案例发生在发展中国家,原因在于那里没有筛选机制。

Well-documented

- evidence from numerous or reliable sources

证据充分的:证据从多个可靠的来源那里得来

- E.g. “Although CNS depressionand analgesia are well documented effects of the cannabinoids, the mechanisms responsible for these and other cannabinoid-induced effects are so far known”.

例子:尽管中枢神经抑郁和痛觉消失都可以由大麻产生,这一点证据充分,但其中的机制和其他大麻的效力目前我们不得而知。